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  • A Right to Health Analysis of Uganda’s National Health Insurance Scheme Bill

    We were honored to present Recommendations for the National Health Insurance Bill to the Parliamentary Committee on Health which is currently compiling a report from stakeholder consultations.
    The recommendations were derived from a Right to Health analysis made in regards to this Bill.

  • Right to Health in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic in Uganda

    By the Campaigns, Partnerships and Networks (CPN) Programme – CEHURD

    The COVID-19 pandemic in Uganda brings about a worrying situation which will undoubtedly check the quality and ability of our health systems. The pandemic is expected to majorly impact the accessibility and availability of sexual and reproductive health and rights for all Ugandans. The Center for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD) is one of the many civil society organisations that are advocating for the advancement of the right to health for the vulnerable communities. This can be achieved by strengthening systems and channels of healthcare service delivery through research, documentation, lobby, advocacy, strategic partnerships and collaborations with respective stakeholders and voices from the rights holders.

    In the face of the global pandemic, we commend the Government of Uganda and the Ministry of Health for the different efforts and measures put in place to contain the virus which, among others, include washing hands regularly with soap and water; stopping public gatherings; avoiding touching the eyes, nose and mouth; and closing borders. 

    While a lot of effort has been put up in the fight against COVID19, we are concerned that other health matters such as maternal health, mental health and sexual and reproductive health and rights have not been given similar attention. 

    The Presidential national address of 21st March 2020, restricted the use of public transport and only allowed private cars. It should be noted that the majority of Ugandans depend on public transport for movement. The additional measures passed by the President in his national address speech on 30th March 2020 that came with a ban of all privately owned cars on the road and required anyone planning to move and access health care services to contact their Resident District Commissioners (RDC) for either permission to move in a private car or access transport to a health center only worsened the situation. Such measures could not adequately address the needs of women seeking sexual and reproductive health services such as antenatal services and family planning services. Further still, during his address on 19th April, 2020, he allowed pregnant women to move to hospital by any available means without seeking permission for the RDCs. Therefore, The Government should ensure that the healthcare system is strengthened and well equipped to handle and respond to all emergencies.

    It is the responsibility of all people, civil society organisations and all sectors to contain the infection, reduce transmission and stop the impacts of COVID-19 on sexual and reproductive health. It is our duty to protect and serve the vulnerable, especially the economically constrained who lack access to healthcare. The most vulnerable include women and girls, expectant mothers, adolescent girls and boys, elderly and those with existing chronic conditions like people living with HIV/Aids, cancer patients, diabetics and the hypertensive.

    Government therefore, has a role and duty to protect and preserve its people by providing for access to and availability of health care services to the population equitably during this pandemic of COVID-19.

    Limited access to reproductive health services

    In the face of COVID-19 and the government’s response to it, accessing healthcare services has become a privilege reserved for only a few. Women now have to trek long distances to access the health facilities. This puts the lives of especially expectant mothers at risk, not to mention the babies since there is a possibility of giving birth along the way or resorting to traditional birth attendants since they are within the communities.  The media has reported women giving birth either in institutional quarantine centres or by the road side as they walk long distances to the hospitals. This will definitely see a rise in the number of maternal and child deaths due to lack of access to health facilities. 

    Government and other stakeholders should therefore establish alternative, well-coordinated and safe means of transport to allow women access to the much needed healthcare. This coordinated response should be able to address emergencies and avoid the three delays in health according to World Health Organisation guidelines (delay in decision to seek care, delay in reaching care and delay in receiving adequate health care) for both the mothers and the babies to survive. In addition to this, the Government and Ministry of Health should closely work with civil society organizations such as CEHURD to sensitise masses on the referral medical services during COVID-19 lockdown and their right to quality healthcare.

    Another challenge that may be faced by expecting women and their families during this current situation is being infected with the Coronavirus as their condition puts them at high risk. This risk is likely to affect their mental health and may lead to unexpected complications during or after child birth. The fear of not being able to get quality and timely healthcare services and information, inadequacy of supplies, absence of healthcare providers and commodities to respond to emergencies and offer specialised services as they are also in panic and fear for their lives, only compounds the problem. Most of the countries that have been supplying healthcare commodities either through donations or imports have been severely hit by the pandemic. This means that there is an anticipated shortage in supply of essential maternal health commodities such as misoprostol, oxytocin, magnesium sulphate and other necessary commodities. This has created a condition of uncertainty for expectant mothers about their lives.

    In addition to the expectant women, over three million Ugandans are living with HIV and need to access ARVS mainly on a monthly basis. The lockdown affects those that were due for accessing care. Failure to access ARVs will affect their health, creating a state of ill health. Providing practical ways and allowing people living with HIV/Aids (PLHA) to access their medication freely despite the pandemic will ease the burden on the health care system after the lockdown. .

    Health workers and support healthcare providers (Village health teams and Health unit management committees) should be trained and supported to provide health care during the prevailing pandemic. At the same time, they should have access to resources and systems necessary to safely and effectively contain the spread of the virus while giving healthcare to others. This can be done by availing them with reliable and up to date information, safety and protective gear and emergency services such that they are efficient and ready to take care of the expectant mothers, PLHA and other illnesses with confidence and professionalism.

    Limited access to family planning services

    The lockdown is likely to expose many men, women, boys and girls of reproductive age to a lot of sexual activity.  The chances of accessing and using protection and contraceptives during the lockdown are minimal. Unprotected sex will only expose them to risks of unwanted pregnancies, infection of HIV and STIs and resultant unsafe abortions. 

    Already, Uganda is reporting very high rates of unmet needs to family planning. Twenty Eight per cent unmet need is a high number. Although the President committed to having this reduced to 10% by 2022 during the International Conference on Population and Development, the factors enabling this reduction must be in place. We are aware that some women and girls were accessing this service in hiding and the lockdown makes it extremely difficult for them to leave their homes to access the same.

    Therefore, effective measures should be put in place to ensure access to and availability of contraceptives and family planning services during the era of COVID-19. Measures including putting up alternative service delivery points, empowering Village Health teams to continue providing services like condoms, and allowing free movement of health service providers to be in position to give the necessary services. . 

    Young people’s access to services and information about their sexual and reproductive health needs/ challenges

    According to the Presidential directives, schools and learning institutions were shut down. This leaves many young people at home with no access to information about their sexuality or even means to get to the next youth friendly centre for this information and services. It should be noted that the National Sexuality Education Framework for the out of school has never been finalised and nor were the parenting guidelines disseminated and implemented by the Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development.

    This leaves parents ill-equipped to provide accurate and age appropriate information about their sexual and reproductive health and rights.  For some of these students, they are spending more time with their abusers who also double as their relatives or guardians. This is likely to cause an increase in rape, defilement, incest, teenage pregnancies rates and unsafe abortions and with inability to report these violations or even access services like PrEP and emergency contraceptives.  

    Gender based violence

    With the lockdown and the shutdown of learning institutions, a lot of violence either mental, physical or sexual has been inflicted against women, girls and boys. There is a need to protect these against any forms of violence that may be as a result of idleness and poverty both at home and in public places like markets.

    In Uganda, the majority of homesteads are women headed providing food, education to children, health care and all the basic necessities yet relying on daily incomes from small businesses.  Therefore, if violated and not given access to their sources of income, many families and children may end up suffering from hunger, illnesses, domestic violation and no education in addition to other effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. 

    Failure to access food and the quality of food being given out by the Government

    With the presence of the COVID-19 in Uganda, a country where the biggest population survives on daily income through informal work, many have become financially constrained during this time. As part of the Government interventions during this pandemic, is to provide free food to such people living on a daily income and those in hospitals. However, the food has not reached most parts of the country and even those who have been able to access it have raised major concerns about its quality.

    During this pandemic, being healthy by consuming nutritious foods is paramount thus local food systems should be properly coordinated and managed  to allow for access to safe and clean food and water. As communities are washing hands regularly and maintaining proper hygiene and sanitation to curb the spread of COVID-19, it is important that there is constant supply of and access to clean and safe water. Regulations on price hikes for essential commodities like sanitisers, soap, sugar and food stuffs should be implemented.

    Recommendation

    It is therefore important that as Government continues to manage COVID-19 crisis, emphasis  be put on essential medical services mainly addressing maternal health. This can be done by stocking and providing healthcare facilities and workers with the maternal life saving commodities (misoprostol, magnesium sulphate, oxytocin and other alternatives) to handle emergencies but also providing protective gears for the health workers to take care of the women during childbirth not putting their lives at risk of acquiring the Coronavirus.

    MoH supports the Blood bank to stock blood sufficient enough to serve those mothers who may suffer from hemorrhage while giving birth during this crisis of COVID-19. This is because due to the social distancing, few people may be able to come out and donate blood yet a lot is going out and less is coming in to support women while giving birth.

    Health workers and health care facilities should be fully provided for and stocked with adequate essential commodities to address the needs of women and the general public in case of any emergency while controlling the spread of the Coronavirus.

    The referral system should be effective and efficient that in case of any emergency the women are referred as soon as possible for specialized services to control deaths while giving birth during the era of COVID-19 in Uganda. Every life matters.

    Government collaborates with the private sector to support women with basic health commodities that can be used during child delivery but also after giving birth to maintain proper hygiene for the health care provider, woman and the newborn.

    Different institutions to work hand in with the Ministry of Health to create awareness about the effect of COVID-19 pandemic to different parts of the country on the economic, social and health status of the entire country.

    Alternative means of ensuring that young people have access to reproductive health and rights information and services should be put in place. The different stakeholders to circulate correct information on SRHR on their various online platforms as this will go along in preventing young people from being misled with myths and misconceptions about their health and reproduction.

    Separate toll free lines should be put in place for the public to report non COVID19 related emergencies that require immediate attention and response.

    That the Uganda police and all other security agencies stop the violation of human rights specifically women through beating them as they enforce the presidential directives. Every human being should be treated with respect and dignity irrespective of their gender and income status.

    All these recommendations should be in addition to the Ministry of Health guidelines, Presidential directives and the WHO guidelines to control the spread of COVID-19 within the country and globally.

    A version of this article was originally published in the Daily Monitor.

  • Mental Health: A neglected issue in the COVID-19 response – My experience

    As the Mental Health Awareness Week winds up, one of our programme officers, Miriam Kyomugisha, shares what she has observed in regard to mental health during COVID-19.

    With the outbreak of COVID-19, people’s mental wellbeing was bound to be affected. When the news first broke in Uganda, there was general panic. I remember the day before lockdown, I was heading to work and offered a workmate a lift but I could see vivid fear in his eyes and speech since he was a public transport user. As the news of the global death scale spread there was a lot of anxiety and from the WhatsApp work group chat. Many people were scared to sleep, some said they couldn’t feel their legs. One of my family members claimed he was beginning to feel as though he had the symptoms because of following the news on different TV stations. That indicates the psychological trauma that the news of COVID-19 spread to even people who did not have mental disorders per se. The paranoia of contracting the disease spread like a wild fire.One of the popular memes that has circulated the internet during this period has been one that talks about fear, anxiety and worry killing people even before the virus.

    Given the different reactions cited above about COVID -19, one cannot help but wonder about what is happening with the people suffering mental illness already.

    One of the measures the Government had to put in place to curb the spread of the virus was a quarantine period which was communicated in the presidential address in April 2020. This quarantine came with restriction of movement of people, lockdown and curfew. Now, most mental disorders do not go well with isolation or being alone. One of the most popular treatments for most mental disorders is being surrounded by loved ones, being busy and basically, avoiding situations that might lead you to be depressed, as this usually escalates the illness. In this lockdown, people have been holed down in their houses, alone, leading to increased levels of depression resulting from all the loneliness.

    As a result of the lockdown, there are reports of suicidal attempts caused by depression and loneliness.This is as a result of patients lacking the support and love they would otherwise receive if they had other people. An example that comes to mind is of a young woman in her early 20’s who suffers from PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) after being raped several times. She attempted suicide and was rushed to Nakasero hospital.One of the causes of the attempt was depression caused by the fact that she was alone and dealing with the psychological pain. Also, for disorders like bi polar which is characterized by extreme highs and lows, it is hard for the sufferers to even reach out for a phone and call for help during the low periods and that has been challenging too. Another area in which mental health has been affected is the cancellation of group therapy sessions where most of the patients usually benefit from because as humans, we find it easier to identify and heal with people going through the same thing as we are. These have not been favored by the need for social distancing and the transport restrictions and also the fact that hospitals are concentrating on COVID-19 patients thus leaving the mental health patients hanging.

    The COVID-19 restrictions have also limited access to mental health care. I know of a patient with a bipolar disorder who has significantly deteriorated with the lockdown. Her counselor who prefers to treat people in their home setting could not access her because of the transport restrictions. We tried to get her to Butabika National Mental Referral Hospital, a renowned facility that specializes in mental health but we were told they were not admitting patients because of the COVID-19 scare. We also tried a private mental facility in Najjera whose administration explained that they were not admitting for the same reason. What was most baffling was the fact that they were not willing to even first test the patient, they simply turned us away.We luckily got help from a friend who gave me contacts of psychiatrists at different hospitals including Nakasero Hospital which has a reputable psychiatric ward. When I called in to ask about admission, I was told that I would have to pay two million Uganda shillings as initial deposit before admission. Unfortunately, we could not afford it at the time. We resorted to getting some medication to contain her condition as we await the end of the lockdown.

    Despite the numerous measures advanced in the COVID-19 response, mental health has not been prioritized. In the medical emergencies that the government has addressed, mental health is not mentioned anywhere but that’s not new. According to the international journal of mental health systems, mental health Services are still significantly underfunded (with only 1% of the health expenditure going to mental health), and skewed towards urban areas. Per 100,000 population, there were 1.83 beds in mental hospitals, 1.4 beds in community based psychiatric inpatient units, and 0.42 beds in forensic facilities. The total personnel working in mental health facilities were 310 (1.13 per 100,000 population). Only 0.8% of the medical doctors and 4% of the nurses had specialized in psychiatry.

    Also, important to note is that with people having a lot of time on their hands and not much to do, they have taken to social media, which is one of the leading causes of depression as it promotes false impressions of people living better lives than you are. It basically leads to comparison and its no news that some people have done drastic things like suicide resulting from social media influence.

    In conclusion, our society’s failure to take mental health very seriously during this period will most likely lead to increased mental health issues. There should have been publications and sensitisation on how to deal with the same as key issues during this time. Also people who help to treat mental health illnesses should have been facilitated to reach their patients. I also think a safe space for people dealing with mental health issues should have been put in place to enable easy, accessible and affordable mental health care. 

  • Health worker arrested for providing Post-Abortion Care out on bail

    In November 2019, Mr Fredrick Kato, a senior clinical officer at Mukisa Medical Clinic received a patient who had carried out an abortion somewhere in Buikwe District. She was in critical condition. Mr Kato provided Post-Abortion Care to her and thereafter referred her to Lugazi Referral Hospital for an abdominal scan. A few days later, the patient returned to Mr. Kato’s facility for further treatment but since she had not gone for the scan as he had recommended, Mr Kato referred her to the referral hospital again.

    On April 6, 2020, police officers from Lugazi Central Police Station arrested Mr Kato. The girl’s parents, who were in town when the Police made the arrest, accused Mr Kato of carrying out an abortion on the girl. Mr Kato was therefore arrested on allegations of carrying out an abortion, which is a criminal offence under the Penal Code Act. The Ugandan Constitution does not explicitly prohibit abortion. Article 22(2), which states that “[n]o person has the right to terminate the life of an unborn child except as may be authorised by law”, does not preclude access to termination of pregnancy; it simply requires a legal framework to do so.

    Our Community Health Advocates at the grassroots were able to identify this case and reported it to our Litigation team for legal support. On May 11, 2020, the Legal Support Network applied for bail for Mr Kato, basing on the standards and guidelines by the Ministry of Health that permit health workers to provide Post-Abortion Care.

    “The law doesn’t favour me, I made an oath as a health worker to save the life of my patient but the legal and policy environment in which we operate is not clear and it puts us in a vague state when it comes to providing services such as Post-Abortion Care,” Mr. Kato shared some of the challenges that health workers face, especially when providing maternal healthcare for women. 

    He called upon the government to amend such policies that put health workers in a predicament when choosing whether to save the life of their patients or let them die in fear of being caught on the wrong side of the law.

    “I am grateful to the Center for Health, Human Rights and Development for putting up functional structures of Community Health Advocates and the Legal Support Network that protect and defend the rights of health workers and people in the community at large. I also thank them for having me out of jail after one month, especially in this time of the lock down where transport is a problem; they managed to get me out, and back to my family.”

    Compiled by Faith Nabunya- Communications, CEHURD.

  • COVID-19: The place of the right to health in national response for Uganda

    Moses Mulumba, Executive Director -CEHURD

    As the state and non-state actors take steps in dealing with COVID-19, I would wish to remind them of the need to urgently strike a balance between these prevention approaches and rights with collective responsibilities. While the state must take efficient intervention, which includes undertaking the right to health impact assessment of interventions, individuals should be taking responsibilities of complying with guidance from the Ministry of Health including social distancing, hand washing and taking other measures that have been identified as effective in preventing the further spread of the virus.

    From a right to health perspective, it is important for the government of Uganda to ensure that prevention and treatment measures in form of supplies and commodities, such as sanitisers of sufficient quality, are available, accessible, and affordable for the most vulnerable communities including: the older persons, those under incarceration, refugees and the very poor. There is also dire need to devise strategies on how poor households, communities and hard-to-reach places without access to clean water, or those who cannot afford and / or access soap, detergents and sanitisers can utilise the prevention measure on hand washing with soap and water. Equitable access to information on COVID-19, must be availed to those that may not access it through the conventional avenues.

    Community participation and solidarity are pillars that have historically been critical in controlling and managing similar outbreaks in Uganda. The effective use of the formal and informal community participation structures in our health system will ensure that communities are active and informed participants in the creation of a responsive health system. In the social isolation mechanism, identification of cases and first management of these cases starts from the family unit and the communities and as such; communities must be viewed as active participants who need to be provided with sufficient, updated and timely information including clearly defined referral systems for the management of COVID-19 cases.

    In times like these, the Government’s obligation of protecting the public from third parties violating the rights of communities becomes very important. We envisage that cases of private actors seeking to make earnings out of the desperate situation on COVID-19 will be on the rise. The much-needed commodities like sanitisers, soaps, masks etc will be faked and/or counterfeited and in some cases sold on the black market much more expensively to the communities. In places where there is absence of government isolation centres, private sector facilities may be provided as an option but at a cost that is unaffordable and out of reach for many of those that are subject to quarantines. Research attempts, including clinical trials will be common and some of these may threaten the key ethical and human rights principles of research. The government needs to make full use of the policy space Uganda has in intellectual property as an LDC to enable it utilise new innovations. We therefore call upon the state to pay particular attention to the right to health implication of commercialisation of commodities and other key services in the era of COVID-19. 

    We call upon the Government of Uganda to pay extra attention to vulnerabilities in the communities and those faced with the burden of being healthcare providers and carers in the times of COVID-19. While the majority of the reported cases in different regions are men, women are the care-givers which, not only puts them at a higher risk of contracting the virus, but also neglecting their other health and human rights. With social distancing and self-isolation, no alternative options are being proposed and implemented to ensure that girls and women continue to access sexual and reproductive health services. Those in prisons and police custody have particular vulnerabilities and interventions packages should be defined to reduce their risks.

    We need to evaluate the extent to which information is reaching those in hard-to-reach areas such as islands, remote and inaccessible areas, pastoral communities, and settlements for refugees and internally displaced persons.

    Lastly, as General Comment 14 on the Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health provides, violations of the right to health occur when the state, among other things deliberately withholds or misrepresents information vital to health protection or treatment. This can also happen when the state suspends a legislation or when it adopts laws or policies that interfere with the enjoyment of any of the components of the right to health. Given that Uganda’s legislation on public health is over 85 years old, we must make an urgent effort to review the key provisions under the Public Health Act that are central for Uganda to have effective responses for global pandemics like COVID-19. Regulatory approval for new medicines and speedy attention to developing new formulations for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 are important considerations too.

    Let us all take care of ourselves, those around us and stay healthy.

    The writer is the Executive Director of Center for Health, Human Rights and Development (CEHURD)

    A version of this article was originally published in the Daily Monitor.

  • Total lock down: What it means for Community Participation in the response to COVID-19

    Christopher Baguma | Community participation and COVID-19

    Community health was an idea mooted by world leaders in 1978 that created the Declaration of Alma-Ata, which reaffirmed access to health as a fundamental human right and identified primary health care as the key to attaining the goal of health for all. During the 30th anniversary of Alma-Ata in 2008, leaders discussed the role of primary health care in achieving the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals. This led to rejuvenated calls for use of community health workers (CHWs) as a form of community participation. 

    Since the Alma-Ata declaration, successive Ugandan governments have acknowledged the relationship between health and poverty and in the 1990s, with the help of development partners, community health interventions were implemented. In 1999, Uganda’s health policy included community empowerment and mobilisation for health as key elements of the national minimum health care package and subsequently made a commitment to the Abuja Declaration of 2001 This also demonstrated the benefits of community-based interventions and opened the way for a strategy based on Village Health Teams (VHTs). The National Village Health Team (VHT) strategy and guidelines in Uganda were developed in 2000 and by 2003 country-wide roll outs of the VHT strategy had commenced. VHTs are lay people, working in a voluntary capacity, acting as a link between the formal health sector and their communities. They are given basic training on major health issues, including childhood diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia, and play a role in disease surveillance through activities such as data collection and reporting. 

    In the wake of COVID-19, the Government of Uganda under the leadership of President Yoweri Museveni issued guidelines initially including the closure of  all schools and places of worship for 30 days and the suspension of travel both in and out of the country with the hope that such measures will slow the spread of the disease. However, as the number of infections increased and the president announced more guidelines ranging from quarantine, restricted internal movements and a curfew. These preventive measures are certainly a good start, but they may not be enough, especially given the systemic and deep-rooted challenges facing Uganda’s public health system.

    However, there is no clear mechanism from the Ministry of Health that links communities with existing health care services which is done by the Community Health Workers and Village Health teams using community-based approaches. Accessing health facilities is challenging and expensive for those living in remote and rural areas. Most of the information regarding the COVID-19 pandemic is in English, which means rural communities might not have access to or might find it difficult to understand publicly available information. This raises challenges in accessing timely and relevant information as well as  health services. Prolonged periods of quarantine and movement restrictions are causing emotional unrest and anxiety, gender-based violence including sexual exploitation, interrupted access to sexual and reproductive health services, including access to family planning within the communities.  

    To address all these issues, the communities must meaningfully participate in health programmes at the local level. The government should therefore engage community health workers and village health teams to increase coverage and cost-effectiveness of health services delivery in the COVID-19 period. To the CSOs, use the existing community structures like peers, champions and paralegals, among others in rural and urban areas to engage these structures to build strong grassroots coalitions that could reach out to the marginalized communities in the response to COVID-19.

    Center for Health, Human Rights and Development (CEHURD) in the fight to reduce the spread of COVID-19 has engaged its community structures; known as Community Health Advocates (CHAs) by designing communication materials highlighting COVID-19 prevention strategies and a toll free line 0800313131 to report any health issue arising within the community that need our intervention. The CHAs work with communities to navigate the healthcare system at the local level by providing information on health, community resources and their rights to health. They work with the communities in identifying and reporting health issues and concerns to the duty bearers. These CHAs have a strong understanding of the healthcare system and resources available within the community as they provide health education to the community related to disease prevention, screenings, and health practices. They do promote community action and garner support to motivate them to seek specific healthy policies by engaging local authorities, healthcare providers and other organisations to develop a more coordinated approach in accessing health services. The coordinated approach is realised due to the existing structure which starts from the community, parish, sub-county and district level with the leadership of the district coordinator and strategic support and coordination from CEHURD secretariat. 

    The writer is the Programme Manager -Knowledge Management Program at Center for Health, Human Rights and Development (CEHURD)


    A version of this article was originally published in the Daily Monitor.

  • Executive watch: CEHURD’s HR Manager

    A warm welcome and lots of good wishes to CEHURD’s Human Resources Manager Ms. Florence Matovu Nakanwagi, an expert with 15 years of experience. Her specialty includes providing strategic direction, developing organisational structures, job analysis, evaluation and grading to ensure internal equity and design of reward policies.
    Ms. Nakanwagi has a Masters in Human Resources Management from Edinburgh Business School, Heriot-Watt University, a Bachelor’s in Education from Makerere University, and is experienced in Information Systems Management, Guidance and Counselling, Management, Skills Improvement and Recruitment. She is also a member of the Uganda Human Resource Managers’ Association.

    We welcome you and congratulate you on joining our vibrant and dynamic team. May your contribution bring fulfillment and success to you and the entire CEHURD team.

  • Malaria; a disease out of sight but not out of mind during the COVID 19 era

    Angella Kyagera 

    Program Officer in the Community Empowerment Program at the Center for Health, Human Rights and Development

    At the moment, almost all efforts, energies and resources are geared towards COVID-19, the global pandemic. Killer diseases like malaria are almost forgotten. Malaria is a disease transmitted by mosquitoes that kills more than one million people in Africa annually. Whereas it is a preventable and treatable disease, malaria is still the leading cause of death among children under five mostly in the sub-Saharan Africa region yet also a global public health concern that perpetuates a vicious cycle of poverty in the developing world. 

    Uganda has the third highest deaths from malaria in Africa and some of the highest recorded malaria transmission rates in the continent, particularly in the areas around Lake Kyoga in central Uganda. The Ministry of Health stated on August 12th 2019 that there had been an increase in the Malaria cases by over 1 million countrywide for the period of June-August 2019. It also stated that there has been a 40% increase in the Malaria cases from 1 million cases in June 2018 to 1.4 million cases in June 2019. The increase in Malaria cases was attributed to seasonality, climate change, reduced net ownership and use due to the aging of nets distributed in the 2017 mass campaign, low malaria prevalence in areas such as Kampala, Population growth and refugee immigration in specific regions. The pearl of Africa also contributes to about 5% of global malaria deaths but strides have been taken to reduce these numbers with a total of 2.2 million nets handed out in 2008 so the proportion of long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage has now reached an estimated 84%. Health workers at all levels (including the private sector) were also trained in integrated management of malaria (IMM) in 102 of 112 districts (10,500 HWs), including training in the management of severe malaria. Clinical audits for severe malaria were performed in 34 of 112 districts. The Ministry of Health has also supported districts with increased cases to order and receive emergency services, revised the quantification of ACTs for this financial year, redistributed malaria commodities from facilities and districts with overstocks to those that are facing a stockout of malaria commodities. They are also monitoring malaria cases, admissions and deaths and using data to guide decisions at all levels. This has helped identify and contain many outbreaks and continued the routine distribution of long lasting insecticide treated mosquito nets (LLINs) to pregnant women attending antenatal care and children in immunization clinics. It has also fast tracked the implementation of the 2020 LLIN mass campaigns and introduced new channels of LLIN distribution such as schools in selected districts.

    Globally, every year on the 25th  of April, we remember the deaths caused by malaria. It is also an opportunity to   highlight the need for better political interventions in malaria control and prevention. This day marks the milestones in the fight against malaria as well as continuously contributing to the efforts in averting this disease through sensitizing citizens mostly in malaria affected countries on simple actions they can take to prevent and treat this killer disease. As a means of investing in ending malaria, some efforts such as engaging community, national and global leaders to prioritize the fight against this disease have been put in place. 

    During last year’s commemoration under the theme “Zero Malaria Starts with Me,’” we called upon relevant stakeholders to highlight the importance of robust health and surveillance systems. These systems can sustain malaria prevention and control interventions for the most vulnerable as the world grapples with COVID-19.  This day also highlights the importance of upholding progress and commitments made in the global fight to end malaria. We call upon all stakeholders to recognise and revitalise the involvement of high-burden countries in Africa, which account for approximately 70% of the global malaria burden as we put an end to this killer disease. 

    As we try to address and control the COVID-19 pandemic, let us not forget to equally invest in building and supporting resilient health systems that protect and advance progress against further outbreaks of existing infectious diseases like malaria.

    Whereas the efforts to contain the spread of the coronavirus should be appreciated, the government should not neglect the interventions and delivery of other health services including prevention and treatment of malaria. This therefore means that governments must put in place avenues to make delivery of all health services accessible, acceptable, available and of good quality.  

    Experience from previous disease outbreaks has shown the disruptive effects on health service delivery if diseases such as malaria are ignored. For example, the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, undermined malaria control efforts and led to a massive increase in malaria-related illness and death in the three countries. COVID-19 pandemic reports from the World Health Organization (WHO) show that in Africa, which carries more than 90% of the global malaria burden, 37 countries had reported cases of the Coronavirus as of 25th March, 2020. To contain the spread of the Coronavirus, most of these African countries declared several measures including continuous lockdowns which are a threat to accessing health services.  

    In recent days, there have been reports of the suspension of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) campaigns in several African countries due to concerns around exposure to COVID-19.[1] Suspending such campaigns will leave many vulnerable populations at a greater risk of malaria, particularly young children and pregnant women. WHO strongly encourages countries not to suspend the planningfor – or implementation of – vector control activities, including ITN and IRS campaigns, while ensuring these services are delivered using best practices to protect health workers and communities from COVID-19 infection. Modifications of planned distribution strategies may be needed to minimize exposure to the coronavirus.

    Also, delivery of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), and intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) should be maintained provided that the best practices for protecting health workers – and other front-line workers – from COVID-19 are followed. Ensuring access to these and other core malaria prevention tools saves lives and is an important strategy for reducing the strain on health systems in the context of the COVID-19 response.  

    There have been reports of disruptions in the supply chains of essential malaria commodities – such as long-lasting insecticidal nets, rapid diagnostic tests and antimalarial medicines – resulting from lockdowns and from a suspension of the importation and exportation of goods in response to COVID-19. 

    Coordinated action is required to ensure the availability of key malaria control tools, particularly in countries with a high burden of the disease, and that efforts to limit the spread of COVID-19 do not compromise access to malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment services.

    There are also reports of people taking heavy doses of malaria treatment of Chloroquine like in Nigeria which recorded chloroquine poisoning after Mr. Trump endorsed it for coronavirus[2] treatment despite the insufficient data to assess the efficacy of either of these medicines in treating patients with COVID-19, or in preventing them from contracting the coronavirus although  there are ongoing clinical trials being conducted in response to COVID-19, including studies looking at the use of chloroquine and its derivative, hydroxychloroquine, for treatment and/or prevention.[3]

    Since 2000, the world has made historic progress against malaria, saving millions of lives however, half the world still lives at risk from this preventable and treatable disease, which costs a child’s life every two minutes. Malaria is increasingly a disease of poverty and inequality, with the most vulnerable at greatest risk of dying from a mosquito bite – particularly pregnant women and children under five in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2018, nearly 900,000 children in 38 African countries were born with a low birth weight due to malaria in pregnancy, and children under five still accounted for two-thirds of all malaria deaths worldwide. Therefore, all governments and states should maintain access to proven, life-saving malaria prevention tools, including insecticide-treated mosquito nets, indoor residual spraying of insecticides and preventive therapies for vulnerable groups as they impose the various restrictions during the COVID19 pandemic.

    WHO is monitoring the fast-evolving situation of the COVID-19 epidemic and needs to advise the countries in the malaria-endemic regions on how to establish and effectively execute public health policies. Preventive measures for COVID-19, including case and contact tracing, quarantine and screening, as well as education to encourage good hand hygiene practices, should be in place. Additional and pre-emptive measures must be taken for malaria control in these countries, anticipating the potential challenge that would be faced by the public health system during an outbreak of COVID-19.

    Malaria is still a global scourge that is preventable but it’s a disease that is curable. Let’s not forget it during this period as we battle to avert the spread of the COVID 19 pandemic. 


    [1] https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/malaria-and-the-covid-19-pandemic

    [2] https://edition.cnn.com/2020/03/23/africa/chloroquine-trump-nigeria-intl/index.html

    [3] https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/malaria-and-the-covid-19-pandemic

Who We Are

[vc_promo_box width=”1/1″ el_position=”first last”] Center for Health, Human Rights and Development (CEHURD) is an indigenous, non-profit, research and advocacy organization which is pioneering the enforcement of human rights and the justiciability of the right to health in Eastern Africa. [/vc_promo_box]

VISION:

A society in which social justice and human rights in health systems is realised.

MISSION:

To advance health rights for vulnerable communities through an integrated programme of litigation, advocacy and action research

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[vc_testimonial client=”Peter K” style=”light” width=”1/1″ el_position=”first last”] Thank you CEHURD for making maternal health a priority and for being so brave to drag Gov\’t of Uganda to court to ensure that the rights of every Ugandan are respected. [/vc_testimonial]

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