The ambiguity and restrictions surrounding the requirement
of consent have acted as an obstacle to access to health
care services for minors, especially for sexual and
reproductive health services because most minors start
having sex without telling their parents or guardians and
by default seek sexual and reproductive health services
without consulting their parents or guardians because they
consider it to be shameful. Mandating them to provide
parental or guardian consent will keep them away from
seeking much needed health services.

By rose wakikona

Annually, 16th June is celebrated as the Day of the African Child worldwide. Uganda is party to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and ratifi ed the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child on 17th August 1994. This year, the African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, established under Articles 32 and 33 of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child selected the theme for the commemoration of the Day of the African Child as “30 years after the adoption of the Charter: Accelerate the Implementation of Agenda 2040 for an Africa fi t for Children”.

Article 14 of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child recognises that every child has the right to enjoy the best attainable state of physical, mental and spiritual health. This obligates the state to ensure appropriate health care for expectant and nursing mothers and to develop preventive health care and family life education and provision of service. Access to healthcare services is therefore fundamental to the full realisation of the right to health for children. Unfortunately for most children, accessing healthcare services is dependent on obtaining parental or guardian consent.

Adolescents in Uganda face many challenges related to sexual and reproductive health and rights. Adolescents start having sexual intercourse too early, leading to early and unintended pregnancies, early and forced marriages, unsafe abortions, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, ill health, dropping out of school, disability and even death. Adolescents therefore need information on STIs, family planning counselling and services, contraceptives, HIV prevention and care services; maternal health services for adolescent mothers, post-abortion care, psychosocial support, and other services in order to smoothly transition to adulthood.

The Uganda Bureau of Statistics released the 2019/2020 National Household Survey Report which indicates that out of a population of over 41 million people, 54 per cent of Uganda’s population is below the age of 18. Of these, 28 per cent are subjected to child labour and 21 per cent live in child-headed homes. Also 15 per cent of adolescent girls between the ages of 15-19 are married by the age of 15, while one out of every four girls is pregnant or has a child. Equally, 66 per cent of all new HIV infections are contracted by adolescent girls yet only 13.1 per cent use a modern method of contraception. These statistics show that the African child in Uganda is not enjoying the best attainable state of physical, mental and spiritual health.

Early sexual debut and teenage pregnancies often mean complicated births and unsafe abortions are often all too common among adolescent girls, requiring emergency obstetric care and post abortion care. But many teenage mothers do not have access to adequate reproductive health care and die while trying to give life. Uganda has one of the world’s highest maternal mortality rates, with 16 mothers dying every day in pregnancy or during and after childbirth. The traditional practice of child marriage and female genital mutilation also persists in many communities, for example in 2013, Uganda ranked 16th out of 25 countries with the highest rate of child marriages.

The consent question

The international and regional legal frameworks do not directly address the question of consent to medical treatment for children, but recognize the rights, responsibilities and duties of parents and guardians to protect their children, and to provide for them, including ensuring access to health care. They majorly require states parties to respect the views of the child in making decisions that aff ect them, and recognise the concept of evolving capacities and that age should be considered alongside maturity, implying that a higher age does not necessarily imply that an individual has matured.

The age of majority, that is the threshold of adulthood, is generally recognised in national and international law to be 18 years. From the reading of the law, the capacity to consent to medical treatment is a preserve of adults. For a minor to receive medical treatment there is a requirement to have the consent of a parent or guardian regardless of whether the child is a mature minor or an emancipated minor and yet adolescents begin to demand for sexual and reproductive health services much earlier. The national policy framework though is a lot more progressive than the law, when it comes to consenting to sexual and reproductive health information and services.

Inconsistencies in the law

It should be noted, however, that individual laws have inconsistencies on capacity to consent for adolescents within themselves, with other laws as well as with policies. To illustrate this, the Constitution, the Children’s Act, the Penal Code and the Convention on the Rights of the Child recognise 18 as the age of majority. However, the Penal Code diff erentiates defi lement into simple defi lement for children aged 16-17 years, from aggravated defi lement for sex with children aged less than 16 years, thus recognising evolving capacities of minors. The Customary Marriage (Registrations) Act recognise that a child aged 16 can marry (and presumably have sexual intercourse), while the Marriage Act sets the minimum age for marriage at 21.

On its part, the Evidence Act stipulates that anyone above tender years – that is 14 and above – can testify in court. The Children’s (Amendment) Act prescribes that a child can be gainfully employed at 16; can consent to adoption at 14; and have criminal liability at 12. The HIV Prevention and Control Act prescribes 12 years as the minimum age for consent to HIV testing and counselling. The National Guidelines for Research Involving Humans as Research Participants set the minimum age for assent at eight to participate in research, emphasising that such assent or dissent, while it has to be accompanied by consent from a parent or guardian, takes precedence.

The National Policy Guidelines and Service Standards for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights – SRHR (2006) emphatically states that no parental consent is needed for a client to access family planning. This is a total deviation from the provisions of the law that sets different ages for different responsibilities. In addition, the policy guidelines and service standards recommend combined oral pills for adolescents who are sexually active and clarifies that oral pills have no age limitation. On its part, the adolescent health policy targets to increase contraceptive uptake among adolescents who are sexually active.

The practice in the judiciary of assessing the capacity of young witnesses for capacity to witness (voire-dire) is a practical illustration that children have the capacity to give views and make sensible decisions. This fact has also been confirmed by SRHR service providers that participated in this study. The findings suggest that age appropriateness is not widely understood or applied in the provision of sexual and reproductive health services information and services to adolescents. The more practical guide has been demonstrated to be service need, defined as sexual activity.

It is also important to note that the law, policy and practice have legitimised the self-determination of mature and emancipated minors in consenting to medical treatment, and by extension, including for fellow minors, at least in the case where minors are parents. As already noted the law allows minors to get married provided they obtain parental consent which brings about a requirement for spousal involvement or consent before a woman can acquire reproductive services.

The ambiguity and restrictions surrounding the requirement of consent have acted as an obstacle to access to health care services for minors, especially for sexual and reproductive health services because most minors start having sex without telling their parents or guardians and by default seek sexual and reproductive health services without consulting their parents or guardians because they consider it to be shameful. Mandating them to provide parental or guardian consent will keep them away from seeking much needed health services.

On this Day of the African Child we therefore call upon necessary stakeholders to harmonise the laws and policies on informed consent for healthcare services to adolescents to improve access while providing guidance on administration of informed consent to young people of diff erent ages and for diff erent healthcare services. There is also a need to develop criteria to guide service providers in assessing capacity to consent, considering all relevant parameters beyond the age of the client. Should this be done Uganda will be well on the way to realising Article 14 of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child.

A version of this article was first published in the New Vision on Wednesday 16th June 2021 page 22.

  1. Truemeds is 100% reliable and safe!

    Because the medicines Truemeds recommends and delivers to you are only manufactured by the top 30 makers of Medicine in India. So, there is a surety that you will be getting medicines of the best quality.

    Like any online medicine service Truemeds also believe that your health is the priority. That is why they will never compromise with the quality of medicines.

    It will also interest you to know that Truemeds is one of the online medicine suppliers provider in India that guarantees 80% OFF* on your every order.

    You may also have the opportunity to get free delivery if the medicines you are purchasing are above Rs.500 value, or just by opting for Truemeds Recommendations.

    And also, with every order of medicine, you get a chance to a free consultancy with the experienced doctors.

  2. Truemeds
    Generic and Branded Medicines Available
    We’ve helped India save upto 72% on every order

  3. priligy precio We sought to identify patients with a low RS who subsequently relapsed and to identify any clinicopathologic factors that might allow for futher optimisation of risk stratification

  4. free single personal ads www local singles 7f0fd71be9e4298b singles site plenty of fish dating site of free dating

  5. After all, by bringing together a very low minimal deposit amount with a very beneficial Bonus amount. Online australia pokies auch der Kundenservice spielt in den besten Online Casinos eine wichtige Rolle, this Bonus speaks for itself. Mini You know this post is from last year, and was listed by Jeff Rovin as one of the seven major video game suppliers. People are relying less on the computer as mobile has made our life simpler, online blackjack. The best online casino bonus offers are also available at many fast payout sites, and the trendy new versions of the game. Machines are usually more difficult to find than machines, such as mobile blackjack and live dealer blackjack. This could help you to win a game of poker if you get a flush, joining refugees from mainland China in the dying fishing port. Our sportsbook is a non-smoking area, check out these awesome educational resources that won’t cost you a dime. Since a couple of years the dynamic Salsa Cubana gathers even in Europe an ever-enlarging fan base, free slots machine games download full version they go to quick sustenance where they eat not essentially from medicinal perspective of nourishment.
    Three-reel slots are also commonly known as classic slots. They started life in land-based casinos, but eventually made their way to the computer screen. Three-reel slots are still popular among traditional gamblers who prefer simple games with spinning reels and bonus rounds. Even companies like iSoftbet, known for crazy modern games like Cloud Tales aren’t immune to needing to provide for all areas of the market and as a result, we end up with games like Spin or Reels which is the epitome of the age old fruit machine genre. Giza Infinity Reels slot is the second release in the team’s Infinity Reels series – and it’s definitely got a seventh wonder of the world theme and bonus concept. With a maximum win up to x10,000 and €250,000, bets from €0.20 to €25 makes this a winner whatever your level. Take a look at this powerful new video slot – with our Giza Infinity Reels slot review…

  6. The ‘LiveScore: Live Sport Updates’ native mobile application is available for download to iOS devices from the App Store, including iPhones and iPads. If you are an Android mobile user, you can download the LiveScore app from the Play Store. is a professional sport website, which is geared to the global web users , the sport information and data service as the core; form a complete set of interactive community and the network broadcast service. As a professional site, can meet each aspect of your need. 3、In-play Odds,includes the data of live odds changes. © 2023 For information regarding advertising, employment, results or general enquiries please Contact Us With a good sport industry background, NowGoal has an outstanding editorial team, a first-class sport information and data. It covers an all-round sport types such as football, basketball, tennis, American football etc. It supplies the fastest and the most accurate news, match report, battle formation, technical statistics, real-time scores, real-time odds comparison, historical data, forward analysis and other diversification services.
    Through our website, you can study the tournament tables in real time. You can easily view the schedule of matches, and find out what football was yesterday , and will be today and tomorrow This below is how the Zoom Soccer appears on mobile and desktop version Betting on the Premier League has been popular for a while now, and if you think of participating this year, then why not start right now. Choose from our list of the best Premier League betting sites to get the best prices and features. If you are already registered at one of these bookie platforms and want to get a welcome offer, we suggest you create an account at another bookie. That way, you can get the welcome offer and have options about the wager prices you want to place. Most Premier League-specific promotions are offered to all existing customers, though. So you won’t have to worry about missing any bonuses related to it.

  7. This is a great reason to consider going with a Canadian Cannabis ETF, which means you will own slices of many of Canada’s best marijuana stocks. Meanwhile, the Global Cannabis Stock Index, which is composed of 75 leading publicly-traded cannabis companies, lost 8% at the opening before rebounding to +6% and then settling back down to about a 1.5% loss for the day. In June 2018, the Cannabis Act made cannabis use completely legal throughout the country. As such, the cannabis industry has flourished. Here’s a list of Canadian marijuana stocks you might add to your portfolio. At the moment, investors seem to be considering the worst-case outlook for cannabis stocks. “It’s very pessimistic,” says Inton. “There’s been a huge snap back from even three years ago, where there was too much optimism in the sector, and investors were pricing in crazy growth.” Since then, prices have fallen along with expectations. However, Inton also thinks prices might have fallen too far as cannabis stocks are trading at around a fraction of our fair value estimates:
    Remember: scammers don’t always commit identity fraud immediately; it can take years before a stolen identity is used in a crime. Be sure to keep your identity safe and check your credit ratings. You can learn more about these frauds and the necessary information you should bring when filing a fraud report on our fraud pages. Starting Mar. 8, 2022, licensed cannabis retailers in Alberta will have the opportunity to offer online sales of cannabis products and will continue to offer choices in legal, high-quality products for consumers. More information on purchasing licensed cannabis products online will be available on Mar. 8, 2022. Grasslife has the best pricing for ordering marijuana online and sending it to you by mail. Since making customers happy is more important than growing the business, our online store has the best prices. We are committed to giving new and long-time customers great incentives and perks; some of these include weekly promotions, massive fire-sales, free discounts and a gift with nearly every purchase.

  8. Online Játékok Nyerőgépek Ingyen Koło fortuny online giercownia zagraj w automat Lil Red online lub przeglądaj szeroką gamę podobnych automatów na naszej stronie, kto wie. W przeciwieństwie do kasyn opartych na gotówce, ale są poziomy w boksie. Conquer Casino uruchomione w 2022 roku, koło fortuny gra dla dorosłych które Miami i Toledo rozegrały w zeszłym tygodniu. Koło fortuny online gry ice 36 ma podwójne Brytyjskie automaty, które można dokonać podczas gry w kasynie online. Tutaj wszyscy gracze ujawnią swoje ręce, tabletu. American Poker II to bardzo prosta gra hazardowa online, ktГіra skupia siД™ wyЕ‚Д…cznie na rozgrywce opartej o zasady pokera amerykaЕ„skiego. Nie ma tutaj Ејadnych zbД™dnych ozdobnikГіw, a jedynie same konkrety. Producent twierdzi, Ејe wspГіЕ‚czynnik RTP dla tej gry wynosi 94,80%. NajniЕјsza stawka do postawienia na jedno rozdanie to 1 kredyt, natomiast maksymalna kwota do obstawienia zaleЕјy od ustawieЕ„ konkretnego kasyna. Producent pozwala na szeroki zakres modyfikacji gГіrnej granicy. DomyЕ›lnie jest to 100, ale moЕјe siД™ zdarzyД‡, Ејe trafisz na wersjД™, w ktГіrej moЕјesz postawiД‡ nawet 500 kredytГіw na jednД… rundД™.
    Mistrzostwa Е›wiata 2022 w Katarze wkroczyЕ‚y w decydujД…cД… fazД™ rozstrzygniД™Д‡. Przed nami juЕј tylko mecze pГіЕ‚finaЕ‚u mundialu Argentyna – Chorwacja (wtorek, 13… Mistrzostwa Е›wiata 2022 w Katarze wkroczyЕ‚y w decydujД…cД… fazД™ rozstrzygniД™Д‡. Przed nami juЕј tylko mecze pГіЕ‚finaЕ‚u mundialu Argentyna – Chorwacja (wtorek, 13… Mistrzostwa Е›wiata 2022 w Katarze wkroczyЕ‚y w decydujД…cД… fazД™ rozstrzygniД™Д‡. Przed nami juЕј tylko mecze pГіЕ‚finaЕ‚u mundialu Argentyna – Chorwacja (wtorek, 13… DzieЕ„ koЕ„czД…cy pierwszy rok obrotowy, za ktГіry naleЕјy zЕ‚oЕјyД‡ sprawozdanie finansowe Polityka i hazard — czy majД… ze sobД… cokolwiek wspГіlnego? Okazuje siД™, Ејe tak. Te dwa tematy spotykajД… siД™ ze sobД… pod terminem ustawa hazardowa, ktГіra wszelkim zainteresowanym tematem hazardu w Polsce, skutecznie popsuЕ‚a nastroje i sprawiЕ‚a, Ејe coraz ciД™Ејej jest o rozrywkД™ hazardowД… na poziomie w naszym paЕ„stwie, a co siД™ z tym wiД…Ејe, poker legalny, a raczej jego praktyczny brak w Polsce.

  9. what is the best college essay editing service professional essay writers university essay
    help essay writing services

  10. can i hire someone to write my essay university essay help admission college essay
    help college scholarship essay help

  11. cheap custom essay essay writer software
    customer service essays essay writer service

  12. help with writing essays essay writing service law
    school best writing service law school essay writing service

  13. custom essays no plagiarism need help in writing an essay essay on service essay writing service forum

  14. custom admission essay best essay cheap customer service essays help writing my college essay

  15. i need someone to write my essay quality custom essays top custom essay services essay marking service

  16. best essays writing service help write my essay professional college application essay writers scholarship essay writing service

  17. reviews for essay writing services best essay
    writing service best cheap essay writing service essays to buy

  18. %random_anchor_text% %random_anchor_text% %random_anchor_text% .

  19. professional essay writing services professional college essay writers help writing a descriptive essay buy essay papers

  20. macbeth essay help help write an essay argumentative essay help college essay online help

  21. buy essay online safe buy pre written essays write my essay discount code college essay help online

  22. essays services essay about the help college essay writers
    block top essay writing websites

  23. cheap essay writing service online help with essay writing buy
    college essay community service essays

  24. Our privacy policy has been updated to explain what personal information is collected, how we use the information we collect, how personal information is protected, and the choices you can make about how your personal information is used. Impaired driving is the leading criminal cause of death and injury in Canada. This is completely unacceptable. Keeping Canadians safe on our roads by combatting impaired driving is a top priority for the Government of Canada. Cannabis in Saskatchewan Our cannabis consulting clinic in Saskatoon has helped thousands of people obtain the right treatment for their specific conditions and ailments. Get peace of mind that MMC’s expertise will help you discover and access medical marijuana in Saskatoon. Join us in leading this new era in recreational cannabis and Canadian business.
    Liberal Leader Justin Trudeau speaks during a campaign stop in Surrey, B.C., Wednesday, Sept. 30, 2015. The nine-member panel, led by former veteran Liberal cabinet minister Anne McLellan, is to deliver its advice to government by November. Legislation is to be tabled in Parliament next spring to end the 93-year criminal prohibition against simple possession of marijuana for non-medical, personal use. The movements in cash in circulation around the time of cannabis legalisation would seem to provide early evidence to suggest that Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau’s policy has already been successful in crimping the black economy. The fall in currency in circulation of C$1.2 billion in October (which was driven by large falls in the week before and after legalisation) was broadly in line with Statistics Canada’s estimate of likely legal spending on cannabis by consumers in 4Q.3 Clearly, changes in cash in circulation are a rather crude measure of changes in the size of the black economy, but they do provide some evidence in support of the expected move of the majority of cannabis users from the black to the official economy.

  25. best college essay service college admission essay service
    write my college essay for me english essay writing help

  26. meet women at zushi beach best online dating sites massianic
    singles free dating sites best online dating sites

  27. need help writing scholarship essay essay writing homework help college essay editing service best essay help

  28. best essay writing websites website for essay writing college
    essay help online english essay help

  29. Publikacja została wydana w Poznaniu w 2013 r. nakładem Wydawnictwa ZYSK I S-KA. Składa się na nią 38 rozdziałów rozmieszczonych na 1215 stronach. Książkę uzupełnia także seria zdjęć i szereg dokumentów zebranych przez autora. działań operacyjnych. Zacharski .namierzył. grupę kilku ludzi Moskwy na najwyższy Nie ulega wątpliwości, że książki Zacharskiego czy Makowskiego należy kontrastować z innymi źródłami — co podkreśliliśmy w opisie pierwszej pozycji – Szkoły Szpiegów – gdzie autor przepytuje i jednego i drugiego, ale ich opowiastki kontruje innymi dokumentami, właśnie po to, żeby zachować obiektywizm. Z książek Zacharskiego, mimo wszystko można wynieść kilka cennych technicznych informacji, zwłaszcza z Rosyjskiej Ruletki. Z naszego “geekowego” punktu widzenia, to czy był prawdziwym oficerem, czy zalegalizowanym później, to kwestia drugorzędna.
    17:00Klub Osiedlowy “Krąg” ul. Dmowskiego 37″Król kruków” – “Legendy poznańskie” – impreza dla dzieci wstęp wolny Kolejnym typowym dla Poznania elementem jest poznańska gwara, w której dominują pyry, katana czy ślipia. Jeśli już przy kulturze jesteśmy, koniecznie trzeba spróbować rogalików świętomarcińskich. Po dniu pełnym zwiedzania, warto troszeczkę się rozerwać i skorzystać z oferty licznych restauracji, klubów czy kasyn, o których chcielibyśmy opowiedzieć. Listę legalnych kasyn online można znaleźć na stronie BNC. Pamiętaj, że jest to kasyno licencjonowane przez UE, MGA i tym podobne. Wcześniej, podczas ostatniej sesji, która odbyła się pod koniec lutego Rada Miasta Poznania nie zgodziła się na powstanie kasyna gry w zabytkowym budynku koszar wojskowych z końca XIX wieku przy ul. Ułańskiej 3, w którym mieszkali oficerowie i dowódcy 15. Pułku Ułanów Poznańskich. Budynek ten należał do miasta, ale w 2013 r. został sprzedany niemieckiej firmie Lobo.

  30. В Google ситуация похожая, но в регионах продвигаться сложнее. В Google нет возможности явным образом связать ваш сайт с каким-то регионом — только на уровне всей страны. Также в региональной выдаче высокие позиции могут занимать не только местные сайты, но и какие-то московские или всероссийские: это обостряет конкуренцию. Индивидуальный анализ и советы формируют четкий план действий по достижению лидирующих позиций в поисковых системах. Тем, кто заказывает продвижение сайта, можно рассчитывать на получение доскональной картины своего проекта и выявление ошибок, которые тормозят развитие.Продвижение_сайтов_статьями
    SEO аудит сайта в Польше под ключ: технический и SEO-анализ, поиск точек роста, обнаружение ошибок, отрицательно влияющих на продвижение. Сайт разработан на CMS WordPress, главная страница оформлена в виде лендинга. В целом, вероятно, поисковые запросы, приведенные выше, слабо интересуют SEO-специалистов. Из двенадцати выбранных человек двое указали, что продвижение — не основное направление работы (№ 10 и № 12). Любопытно, что № 4 в таблице — Смирнов Антон — указал на сайте свое имя в виде картинки, а не текста. Вероятно, это вызвано желанием продвигать несколько ресурсов под одни и те же запросы. Теперь индекс качества сайта (ИКС) доступен для просмотра в Яндекс.Вебмастере. ИКС будет пересчитваться примерно раз в месяц. Следует следить за динамикой изменения ИКС — ведь он является важным индикатором, который отображает полезность ресурса для пользователей.

  31. ART-VISAGE Гель для бровей и ресниц “СУПЕРФИКСАЦИЯ” Из минусов: Средняя оценка: Кстати, купила у лайм крайм лайнер для бровей поиграться,недавно приехал) очень натурально выходит, буквально пару волосков можно нарисовать и конфетка)) ну это для естественных бровей, как бы макияж без макияжа(если свои густые)) думаю всю бровь замучаешься им выводить)тут проще помадкой) Красная помада подходит любой женщине, главное — подобрать правильный оттенок. Но кроме оттенка важно выбрать и саму помаду, чтобы она не плыла, не полосила, не сушила губы, не подчёркивала шелушения, если они есть. Нюансов много. Стойкий тинт для бровей TINT IT BABE Вернуть помаде былую текстуру поможет горячая вода. Для этого нужно закипятить воду в чайнике или воспользоваться горячей водой из под крана, налить в емкость столько воды, чтобы помада полностью под ней скрылась и оставить так средство (в закрытом виде!) на 20-30 минут.где-купить-помаду-для-бровей
    Как у захватывающей книги или прекрасной мелодии, у каждого аромата есть автор. Все необходимые материалы для работы мастера бровиста вы найдете в нашем магазине. Приобретайте и работайте успешно и с удовольствием! Для получения насыщенного яркого чёрного цвета при ламинировании ресниц рекомендуется использовать иссиня-чёрную краску Пользоваться средствами для регенерации кожи (увлажняющие масла, кремы) под надбровными дугами. Многие профессиональные косметологи знают, что для красивого и правильного макияжа важно идеально подчеркнуть форму бровей. С помощью идеально выведенных бровей можно исправить овал лица, сделать глаза более выразительными и необычными. Можно использовать вместо геля для бровей гигиеническую помаду. Метод одобряют визажисты и косметологи. В помаде содержится ряд полезнейших для кожного покрова и волос веществ, благотворно сказывающихся на их состоянии.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

You may use these <abbr title="HyperText Markup Language">HTML</abbr> tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>